At that time, signs were primarily mom-and-pop-type organizations, and furthermore, after a year or two, I saw that the University wasn't licensing this for other uses anywhere or even marketing it. Around this time, a very large company from Japan, just showed up one day and said, "We read your patents, and we really like them. It's been very helpful. It really was a part of the University, yet set apart from the university research campus. I began to explore other avenues of funding around that time. I kept mine, as did a few others, but faculty were finding it more difficult to get research funding, because [, in part,] the basic research was becoming [better] known. Right now, I can watch my computer recording our conversation. I think this is another reason I retired when I did because I also convinced DARPA that this might be a nice technology, the reflective technology, because you could see it in the bright sunlight, you could use it in airplanes, and so on. One of the researchers, Wolfgang Helfrich, went over to Hoffmann-La Roche, who with Martin Schadt developed the twist cell display. It wasn't easy for the company to do all that. When they'd come here, they'd ask where to fly into, and we'd say Cleveland, and they'd say, "Where is that?" At that time, he had written a review paper on liquid crystals. I convinced them to contribute to this. Because I was far out in the country, I went to a one-room schoolhouse for all eight grades. The University wanted to license it, and I talked the University into letting me form a company around this. I thought it was good for Kent State, too. We have partnered with We didn't think we could ever make a raser. Oral History Interview with J. William Doane by Matthew Crawford. I didnt know anything about tube sockets. But in the end, I don't know how the military gets their displays today. CRAWFORD: It really seems to force the question of application.DOANE: Yes, it forces the question of applications. I wanted to try something different to keep it local. Aleks Gilbert. As a university, we may have, at one time, been the largest contributor to talks and demonstrations at those Society conferences. They have a lot of secrets. I like theory, but I like to get my hands dirty. They really liked to use their technology for PR, to say they'd developed it, started these new companies, and were getting into the economy. [Laugh] [I am sure, however, there are some examples where it has paid off. There were also new types of liquid crystal display technologies created that were commercialized. [Laugh] Strung my antennas and so on. Disease has always been the biggest killer. I know Kent State doesn't, for sure. "DOANE: Jim Fergason was not involved in THEMIS research. Then, there were some other companies, like Brookstone, that really wanted to sell these things. I didn't know it at the time, but I think the biggest discovery for me was the polymer dispersion. Is it the case that they had seen what the Japanese were doing with displays and came to the American scientific community asking them to develop something like that for them? Samsung in Korea does it today on 60-inch and larger screens. It seemed to be the best thing to do, and my wife, Shirley, agreed. But they were finding it not a very big market and a very unusual market. I visited many potential investors, the contacts that I set up were on my own.] I wanted Kent to benefit from this. It was the first patent I ever wrote. His work in leadership positions at the LCI focused on building connections and looking for opportunities, with his research focusing on the basic science of liquid crystals and later applications for display technologies. There was even some interest in Europe, and here was some licensing there, too. Around the early 80s and throughout the 80s, several of the defense agencies became very concerned about all this because they needed these flat-panel displays for fighter planes, tanks, and stuff like that. Basically university research on liquid crystal materials and industrial research on liquid crystal displays were disconnected. But I didn't really do too much because it's primarily coursework. They're up in a little town, Kent, Ohio." ]CRAWFORD: When you say licensing's not good business, you mean financially?DOANE: Personally, I didn't think it was a great business, [financially, for Kent State University but they did make some money at it. I liked working with my hands, and I liked building things. He just didn't adapt to the situation that was developing. It was really good for both chemistry and physics departments and their graduate programs because it funded graduate students and their dissertation research. Everybody seemed happy with that, so we did it. In the end, the United States didn't get anything from it. With regards to science, in high school, I got involved with amateur radio. The reason they focused on these three companies was that they could make a flat-panel screen made up of thousands of tiny pixels, where each pixel operated independently. I was able to get a lot of defense contracts. We were all going to research conferences etc., but the cohesiveness of the group funded under NSF individual grants began to degrade. Over in chemistry, there was Vernon Neff, who was doing infrared dichroic studies, [Bill Bacon on liquid crystal phases. Les Avenires Veyrins-Thuellin : Les Avenires Veyrins-Thuellin Localisation : Country France, Region Auvergne-Rhne-Alpes, Department Isre. It was a beautiful country. CRAWFORD: It sounded more like kind of an aspiration. DOANE: [A local industry helps fuel university research. We had a big handicap here at Kent State because there was no electrical engineering department at Kent at that time. I'm delighted you're doing it.CRAWFORD: Well, I want to just thank you again for being so generous with your time and sharing your story. Also, of course, the University would get a royalty. This is our third session. UPDATE 10/2/17 @ 9:46 p.m. I wanted to create KDI to set an example so others would do it, and it worked. Public accommodations protections include being unfairly refused services or entry to or from places accessible to the public (retail stores, restaurants, parks, hotels, etc). Not long after he came aboard, he promoted Asad Khan to be his CTO.  We could probably do it today on a blimp, but back in those days, we couldn't do that large of a display on plastic that would fit nicely on a blimp. ARPA wound up splitting it and making this center NCIPT.CRAWFORD: And that was because you'd all put in proposals related to optical [inaudible]?DOANE: Related to [optics], yes. As it turns out, there are a number different ways you can make a display with a liquid crystal. Akron contributed really nicely to the display technology because with polymers, they could make things like retardation films, and Akron really got involved. The University of Akron was quite agreeable. Is there a particular reason why they focused on that type of cell at that time?DOANE: I don't know their reasoning, but I can tell you why I'd choose it. But continuing that attitude didn't work when the materials began to be developed and their use became recognized. And of course, after they graduated from high school, they went to college, and I didn't see them then, either. However, at that time, he was not very well. One of the first things I did when I got back was to go to people like Dave Johnson in physics, Wilbur Franklin, Dave Uhrich, Edward Gelerenter and others. Town Center at Cobb October 13, 2010. This is what got Kent off the ground. [Laugh] CRAWFORD: Did you see patenting as a way of kind of signaling that the Institute was moving into applied research?DOANE: No, I didn't see it from that point of view. In a liquid crystal display there are color filters. He reconfigured the company. It was a nice program. I had a lot of government support that I could bring into the company as well. They were actually [the first industry to jointly work with the Liquid Crystal Institute to further develop PDLCs. Locate simply the city of Les Avenires Veyrins-Thuellin through the card, map and satellite image of the city. CRAWFORD: That's correct, that was the spirit of that program. ]CRAWFORD: Right, because the university becomes kind of a competitor to the companies.DOANE: [Not necessarily a competitor because they're not in the same kind of business]. RCA wound up not wanting to manufacture it. CRAWFORD: I want to circle back to the late 80s. With See more 27,359 people like this I took this display to a meeting of the Society for Information Displays, the first time I'd ever been to one of those display meetings. She had a master's degree from Boston University, and I think graduated magna cum laude, majoring in languages. For more information, please see our But when I married Shirley, she knew from the very beginning I wanted to go back to graduate school. Like Peter Palffy and John West, he originally came into the liquid crystal institute under the title senior research fellow, with no professorship as did Adriaan De Vries and several others. The name of the company who manufactures this now and markets it is Ebulent [and its CEO is Xiao-Yang Huang]. Little Tokyo. But the champion ended up being Japan. DOANE: The early 70s, of course, is when the THEMIS grant was going. DOANE: It was very good for the LCI [and also for Kent State in other ways]. But we really made a nice presentation. Furthermore, Saupe wasn't doing physics, he was doing work on the structure of small molecules, so really, chemistry. I don't think anybody else did. We had meetings and all sorts of interactions, particularly through the Hughes Research group. I thought, "I'm going to see if I can get the administration to let me use this program in the Institute." And, boy, that did it right there because I completely forgot about my worries. USC applied, I applied, and so did these other universities.] Another company that was very involved with liquid crystal display work was Tektronix in Oregon. It's a lot easier to start a company in California, particularly in Silicon Valley, than here because they can more easily find investment. We started a project studying these materials with electric field pulses. As a good rule of thumb, ideally you would have at least three times your monthly rent in combined household income. Dec 20, 2021. Then, we had to decide what to do with this program. CRAWFORD: Well, thank you very much for saying that. At that time, the liquid crystals were unstable and would decompose over time. Phil Bos knows what those students did when they went out there. They seemed to like the idea, but I didn't always get what I thought I was going to get. But I'd say from Kent State University's point of view, it was the visibility in the science field. It was very fundamental research. As a graduate student, when I got into nuclear magnetic resonance, I had a research assistantship while I was working on my PhD, and that was funded with a grant. 2 hours from Kansas City. As an academic institution, our prime responsibility is to pursue fundamental research. However, after two years, Nelson Duller's wife didn't like it in Missouri and wanted to go back to Texas, where she was from. You had talked about how part of moving into that space between physics and chemistry was to encourage interactions and stuff.DOANE: It was golden. This is our second session, and we're doing this interview in his office at Kent Displays. They or their students often like to establish a company and make use of it themselves. [Laugh] It was clear that it was really going to take off. As a result the company became focused on writing.CRAWFORD: Before the shift to the Boogie Board, you mentioned that the company was making signs and had some contracts in Israel and whatnot. You have to give it to Jim, he really understood the value of this twist cell technology. ]CRAWFORD: How important do you think the winning of Project THEMIS was to the LCI?DOANE: Terribly important, not only for the LCI but also the faculty, graduate programs and the University. That may have caught their attention. DOANE: But THEMIS, as I understood it, they just wanted basic fundamental research on liquid crystals. Also, I think it forces people, particularly in governments, to look at how we deal with diseases. It wasn't just because of this that it wound up in Japan, Kent was only a small part of the problem. I wanted to see that technology get into the US economy in some way. Also, the US. If this interview is important to you, you are advised to consult the original digital audio files and any additional files related to the interview in the Kent State University Special Collections and University Archives. There was Dave Johnson in the physics department, who was doing very nice work on calorimetry, the thermodynamics of liquid crystals. That was my approach to teaching, to try to show how it's used to inspire the student to learn. I thought, "Oh, he's switching between two bistable structures, something that others had not been able to do. In the case of liquid crystals, he was sort of correct in the sense that liquid crystals were a material nobody understood, and that basic research had to be done on it. - City . DOANE: First of all, investment. I think that's one of the nicest contributions it had. Even then, when I wrote the patent, I knew nothing about licensing. I think John West could tell you more about that. Our team has selected for you a list of hotel in Les Avenires Veyrins-Thuellin classified by value for money. [Laughs] I was pretty much an only child. [Laugh] I wasnt aware of it and glad you brought this to my attention.CRAWFORD: That seems a fair characterization? Asad worked very closely with me on all of these things, and eventually he took over as principal investigator on all government contacts ultimately becoming CTO as I got closer to retirement. [Laugh]CRAWFORD: Is there anything else you want to say with regard to Kent Displays?DOANE: I don't think so. Early 80s. But without that, I dont know what wouldve happened to the Institute. I never really worried about COVID as a disease, I just followed along with what professionals thought we should do. I could do what I wanted to do. In '65, when I was interviewing for the positions, there was already some work going on here and there around the country. Or was it just purely, "This is where we have space"?DOANE: Chemistry and physics being two independent units didn't bother me at all. If I apply a voltage pulse, it does this and if I change the voltage of the pulse it does that." [Laugh] While liquid crystals could get that feature, it had a very short temperature range. And if you publish it, you can't further develop it in order to patent it. He was a nice guy [and a very capable researcher].CRAWFORD: You mentioned that at the time, Schadt and Helfrich were working on display cells and so forth, and that there were a number of different options for making displays. CRAWFORD: You talked a lot about your work building a program at Kent State. The more you know about what they want, the better proposal you can write, the better you can fit in, the better you can adjust what you're doing to what they're doing. Freshly painted, with hardwoods and tile throughout, this 3 bedroom 2 bath will not last long. One texture reflects a beautiful colored light. Were there lessons you took away from it?DOANE: The big lesson I learned about patenting was not so much from this patent as it was from operating on my own, later on, under the Bayh-Dole Act. So we adopted a child who was only eight days old. DOANE: Campus is a great place to walk and ride bikes, but I don't like to go there when it is shut down because it's so depressing to me.CRAWFORD: And that's a really good example of what you were saying about how the pandemic has impacted social interactions. That was what got us into flexible plastic substrates. CRAWFORD: How did you find her?DOANE: I knew her because she was in the physics department, and I saw what a good administrator she was there. I wanted to see the city of Kent benefit from this, employment, and so on. Shortly after that, we had a project with a company outside the beltway in Washington DC that had a defense contract to develop some very secret thing. Do you have any sense of what was driving that change or what has driven the change from this vision Brown expressed?DOANE: I'm not sure it was actually ever really feasible. But what a distraction that was, taking considerable time away from company development.That's the thing about patents: a patent doesn't help you much unless you protect it. I saw a big opportunity to do that. CRAWFORD: Was this a type of liquid crystal that was discovered or developed at the Liquid Crystal Institute?DOANE: Actually, that type of liquid crystal was the first ever discovered back in 1888. And that's what I formed KDI on. Industry was doing a lot of that kind of research then. A Building Advisor will be in touch with you shortly. 1 of 8. This fundamentally means you're only using half the light. I was further able to convince them, because Kent Displays was very small and didn't have much of an R&D unit, to let us use their facilities, at a cost, of course, to develop the technology further. Both of us saw it as a challenge, and I was willing to try to take it on as a dissertation, and he was pleased with that because we thought it would be fun to do. Everybody was from industry. I went there, and I wasn't in engineering very long. In fact, liquid crystals were looked upon that way, I think. That $8 million would've been a lot better spent going to developing products and marketing. I was standing there, and the professor happened to be in there, and he saw me. They wanted something you could wear, could see very clearly, and not have to change the battery. We didn't have that technology. Those were kind of my early years. "I want to make clear that the Institute was not founded to do feasibility studies for industries. There can be non-disclosure agreements with an industry in which confidential information is transferred. Register or Buy Tickets, Price information. [Laugh]CRAWFORD: In 1996, you received the Distinguished Corporate Inventor Award from the American Society of Patent Holders. Ive been told that China likes them in train stations and various public places.CRAWFORD: Same thing with the Boogie Board, right? It was important to me that this company, the first spin-off formed, turn into something. I don't know whether I'm responsible for this, but I think the center got Steve Forrest at USC focused on using light-emitting diodes for displays. Well, it did in the sense that it influenced what I was doing and had an effect on it through this property of spin-lattice relaxation in the surrounding crystalline lattice. The other reason was, at that time, I'd been at Kent State 31 years, and the University had what they called a five-year buyout plan which was an incentive. That may have been what caught their attention. Jim seemed to be going off on his own. A guy in England named George Gray, who Glenn had worked with. The funding for Kent Displays was strictly Bill Manning.CRAWFORD: And then, you mentioned getting some defense contracts. Peachtree Rides (Mall Train) He said he got a call from a guy in the Air Force he knew, and they wanted to explore liquid crystals. I think it was a March meeting, so I think it was '65. In my view, if Kent was going to really build graduate programs, it needed to focus somehow. There were also different kinds of optical devices created. It was a big effort for that time.CRAWFORD: Did that include what Akron and Case were doing?DOANE: These were our expenditures in Kent. Please contact the. There was one goal we knew we couldn't achieve when we started it, though. Institute was still on the research campus but now had a broader scope involving more science departments.] Some were even teaching classes. Over the years, I've directed something like 25 doctoral dissertations, and I don't know how many master's students. I guess towards the late 80s, these programs became available. It's just the challenge of doing that, it's not necessarily thinking, "I'm going to be able to sell watches. Also around that timearound '67, a lot of things happened. The only ways to do that were visibility and having something really pertaining to the needs of the country. This choice to take some research and move it into patents, take it out of publication, was that a concern at all, that you'd be taking away from your academic achievement?DOANE: It wasn't a concern for me because I really wanted to get into applied research. ]CRAWFORD: Why is that?DOANE: A license won't last very long. [Laugh]CRAWFORD: Did he ask you if you played softball? [As I mentioned earlier, group funding had ended and liquid crystal research on campus was beginning to fall apart.] Request More Information. I could see the possibility of getting a contract from a defense agency at that time, so I talked to Bill Manning about more funding to push the company further into the development of full color high resolution displays for military and other uses.. Much to my surprise, right away, Bill Manning was willing to put in substantially more money. Glenn called me into his office and wanted to talk about Jim Fergason. When you put it between two sheets of plastic, it can assume two different types of contrasting visual textures. And in the meantime, I'd talked with others who may have wanted to invest in it, some people up in Cleveland who thought they might do it. And it was very different, a new way of making droplets and liquid crystals, a very simple way to do it. Another contribution was creating new products. I was a little bit embarrassed that my display was just black and white as when I got there, the Japanese were showing beautiful colored displays. Another problem at that time, which isn't an issue anymore, was having the right kind of liquid crystal material to use it with. The Institute would've been a larger and more effective organization much earlier. Here, we had a new technology, we had patents on it. To do this, he had to have a lot of support from the University. Basically, it was a job interview. DOANE: I think that may be one of my best contributions, actually.CRAWFORD: Could that be seen as pioneering? Best Buy Kennesaw 850 Cobb Place Blvd NW Kennesaw, GA 30144 Get Directions 1000 feet 250 m 2023 Microsoft Corporation Terms Store Hours Open Now - Closes at 8:00 PM Curbside Pickup Hours Open Now - Closes at 8:00 PM E-mail Us (770) 424-7868 Top Deals On this Page: Shop Specialty Shops & Services Promotions FAQs Reviews Nearby Stores About I think one of the best ways a university capitalizes on patents is through PR. Nearby cities and villages : Corbelin, Granieu and Brgnier-Cordon. Atlanta-based Preferred Apartment Communities (NYSE: APTS). Hopefully, things will take a turn for the better soon. There was more of an awareness brought on, and I credit that to a lot of the defense agencies. But we could see what the challenges were in doing that sort of thing, and it was kind of fun to do that. One thing I did, in order to keep faculty focused when someone would give a talk, was to make them bring a demonstration. University of Oklahoma at Stillwater, various places. At that time, I wanted to move the liquid crystal building on to the research campus because that was where most of the research was going on. In the end, we won out. He even formed a little radio club. CRAWFORD: Was this started in 1991?DOANE: I think it was awarded in 1991. But after two years, passing all these candidacy exams, all this coursework, I talked to Shirley, and we thought maybe it would be the thing to do. At that particular point, I married my wife, Shirley, right after I graduated.CRAWFORD: This would've been 1950?DOANE: 1958. These don't have to be refreshed. It really helps to have a relevancy to your research work rather than just being something of interest.] The American companies, involved in it very early on, saw Japan taking off and just pulled out. Employment protections include being fired, denied employment, or otherwise discriminated against by an employer. We began to get work using liquid crystals, not just PDLCs, but other kinds, for optical studies. [Laugh]CRAWFORD: That's true. Faculty and research fellows in the Kent group were finding it more difficult to find support. Molecules, so really, chemistry interviewing for the positions, there was one goal we knew we see! Was this started in 1991? doane: a license wo n't last very.... Not long after he came aboard, he was not founded to do, and wife! Were some other companies, like Brookstone, that did it like theory, but I think may... Pulse, it was important to me that this company, the University protections include being fired, denied,... The American Society of patent Holders I do n't know how the gets... Same thing with the Boogie Board, right over the years, I it! Played softball and, boy, that did it were on my own. information is transferred doing,. 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